Technology Infused Lesson Plan - Sample 5

 DATE:   March 3, 2010

SUBJECT:  – Smart problem solving, using numbers containing fractional parts - Mechanical Drill tools

CDE - California Common Core Content Standards (CCMS) , New Generation Science Standards (NGSS)

Number and Operations - Fractions

A broken drill -

LESSON  Practical problem solving, modeling quantity with numbers that contain a fraction (battery voltage, adding, subtracting, multiplying and dividing repeated equal amounts).

MATERIALS AND AIDS (what you will need in order to teach this lesson)

drill-toybatteries5 bits


This lesson uses a "problem based learning" (PBL) approach, with mini-lessons focused on the Common CoreMathematics Standards Number Operations-fractions, addition, subtraction, multiplication and division, and the New Generation practice standards for 3-5 th grades. This lesson is proposed for appropriate and convenient delivery including sufficient hands-on opportunities for students through additional, expanded linked activity sessions.

INSTRUCTIONAL GOAL Students should be able to begin to appreciate the value of simple tools, and to follow the "Smart problem solving" procedure (Scientific methodologies, Polya's Problem solving approach) to identify and solve a problem in a specific, concrete case of a broken toy tool. Students will also be able to understand basic effecs of electricity and batteries, use number, symbol and fraction representations to describe and deal with useful devices i.e. "Engaging in the practices of engineering likewise helps students understand the work of engineers, as well as the links between engineering and science" (NGSS) .

PERFORMANCE OBJECTIVE   In the end, students should be able to identify and restore correctly the expected function of the presented toys and tool, restoring or modifying the component or procedural element causing the problem, 100% of the time . The broken toys should be identified and the "broken" drill should be fully functioning at the end of the exercise. Students should be able to recognize how their awareness and skills could be used to confront a variety of other similar or even new real-life situations.

RATIONALE  An understanding of the value of tools, and the proper execution of each of the steps of the scientific method, specifically using a "smart problem solving procedure" as well as understanding the basics of the accuracy and reliability (precision) allowed by fraction number representation and operations that should be essential to the effective functioning of all competent citizens in our societies. The practices should allow the students to begin to internalize the processes of solving problems preventing the misdirection of expectations, efforts and resources throughout their lives. In effect, helping balance the use our energies in more effective and efficient ways, making our resources and services cheaper, more reliable, safer, faster, and more enjoyable.

LESSON CONTENT: This lesson block is suitable to be replicated for similar cases dealing with the use of scientific methodologies and mathematical tools for the resolution of concrete problems and situations regarding working tools and devices. The lesson includes participatory physical and virtual demonstration activities.

1.- Students will be presented first with motivating visual and physical objects to challenge them to identify non-functionality problems. A description of a functional drill and bits will follow, producing holes of different sizes on a practice wood slat to illustrate the value of that tool. The instructor will describe the components of a drill, the bits, powering options, and the importance of a proper sharpening and use of the bits, priming the center point of the intended hole, and appreciate the effect of rotating speed and pressure into the surface of the target material.

Focusing event (something to get the students' attention)

NOTE: During a special introductory "test drive" session (2/26/2014), a short demonstration will be performed to observe the potential of the specific setup and practices of a new student "Technical Services Center" (as different from a "Sales Center") workshopto motivate and educate children in the activities of engineering services. During this time, one student participating in the after-school Prime Time program at the school site will be selected to perform sample activities. The student will be told that the job today will be of identifying and possibly repairing non-functional, battery-powered devices (toys) provided. The student will then be allowed the use of related tools, and to peruse through the toys (some 10-20 minutes) to find the ones (there are two) that are non-functional. In particular, the focus will be on an organized approach to problem definition and the process of fixing them, applying the steps listed in a "Smart Problem Solving checklist".

At the end of the special exercise, other students will be invited to join, inspect the toys, devices and tools and ask questions.

Make various hand-drills and bits available for students to openly and freely view, touch, an select to use, under careful supervision. Provide some 3 separate wood slats for practice, using the various bits provided for this purpose. The idea is that an open, unstructured, guided introductory environment that fosters self-selection, would promote better motivation and participation of children in the experience. Children could additionaly be personally invited to participate and be queried about the concepts of drilling, tools, and hinted about a "problem" existing in the toy drill tool, which would be worked on for resolution. The following would be possible motivating, introductory questions for the children:

1.- Do you know what a drill is? What a tool is?

2.- How are drill tools helpful?

4.- How are the holes made with drill tools helpful?

5.- How many different types of drills tools do you know? Do you/your parents keep one of these tools at home? Have you heard of the various types there are of drills? Show images below:

Simple hand drill Press drill Multi-bit drill
drill manual drill-shop
Computer/Numeric-controlled press drill
Off shore oil exploration platform and drill

6.- Allow one of the children to indentify, among the drills presented to them, which ones are functional and which ones (one) are (is) not?

Teaching procedures (methods you will use)

As helpful, explain the different types of hand-drills shown (two of them battery operated). Describe also the value of the holes created using drills as tools - create lean, clean, sharp, strong spaces (holes) for attaching materials (using screws, rivets, holders, etc. or even fitting, interlocking...) that cannot be created the same using knifes, chisels, rocks, or our bare hands... for example. Use a real hand-drill to create some 5 different-size holes into a slat of wood provided for that purpose.

Describe how instead of using hand-force to propel the drill, batteries or wall sockets will supply electric energy that can be used for that purpose. Explain that CAM-CAD (Computer Aided Drafting - Computer Aided Manufacturing) drills are specially able to guide themselves (with supplied computer program and controls) into manufacturing best product pieces (e.g. semi-manual drills, automated large, marking drills)

Confirm the non-functionality of the battery-powered toy drill by pressing its ON/OFF button trigger: the drill does not start.

Refer to the Smart Problem Solving checklist, and ask students if they have heard of it, and their opinion, since it is intended for troubleshooters to get the best answers by correctly identifying and solving "problems" in need of resolution.

For the case of the broken hand-drill:

1.- Do we understand what the customer/owner is stating about the item? - ("broken drill"?)

2.- Do we understand what a "good" drill does (function) that the broken one does not? - (e.g. no spin?, no power from batteries?)

3.- Do we know how electricity and batteries provide voltage and power to tools? - (each standard healthy battery unit providing a nominal voltage, 1.5 Volts) between its ends, i.e. oriented in a specified positive or negative (+/-) direction. Show how grouping and connecting batteries differently: serial = piggyback vs. parallel = side-to-side) can lead to different total combined (added or subtracted) voltage to supply power. Therefore, inserting the batteries incorrectly (same end to the springs inside toy drill handle), could make it not work. Mounting batteries in one direction provides voltage positive in one direction, negative in the other, adding or subtracting to an aggregate series or parallel array total correspondingly. As possible, use the interactive displays Positive and negative tokens , Positive and negative electricity , Series & Parallel Batery Pack and/or real batteries and multimeter to demonstrate the concepts above and help explain the effects of multiple battery arrays through the concept of repeated addition (multiplication) and subtraction (division). Use the multibattery holder(s) and the Multimeter to show and compare expected total results. for example: How can we get 6 Volts using groups of 1.5 batteries? How many 1.5 batteries do we need to replace the voltage of a 12 Volt battery? What do you think would be the difference between "skinny" and "fat" batteries?

4.- By looking at battery container in the drill handle, can we tell how (direction) each of the batteries shoud be in correctly?

5.- Was the problem corrected (the power restored to the drill)?

6.- Final question: How do drills enlarge the power of electricity or batteries (at he expense of reduced rotational speed) using gears? - A topic of another lesson.


Formative check (progress checks throughout the lesson)

Students understanding of the issues and the case in front of them is evaluated thorugh direct observation of their work, including the objects manipulated, forms filled, and as convenient, through directed questioning at different steps.

Summative check

Can the student state briefly the nature of the problem and its resolution?

Student Participation (how you will get the students to participate)

This is a student-driven activity, as necessary or convenient, one student would be allowed to coordinate the participation of others in a team effort.

An old, functioning hand-drill tool will be made available for students to dissect at will for enjoyment at the end of the exercise/lesson.

Closure (how you will end the lesson)

A restatementwill be made about what was involved in the experience - The nature of drills, tools, and organized, disciplined problem solving procedures.